Financial modeling is the practice of using quantitative analysis to create a mathematical model of a financial decision-making process. This involves utilizing various assumptions and techniques to forecast outcomes and determine financial performance, typically in excel. Excel is one of the most important tools used in financial modeling, as it helps to quickly summarize large data sets into streamlined visuals that can then be used in analysis and decision-making.

For the best accuracy and reliability in financial modeling, the following best practices should be utilized when working in Excel.

Setting Up a Financial Model

Financing models build upon fundamental knowledge of accounting and finance principles. They are used to create forecasts, estimates, and other analyses to inform business decisions. Before you start using a financial model, you need to set it up. Here are some of the best practices for setting up a financial model in Microsoft Excel.

Setting Up a New Sheet

A good practice when constructing a new financial model is to create a new sheet. This will help you keep all your financial information in one place and easily refer back to it. When setting up a new sheet, it’s important to include a title at the top and make sure that all of the inputs, outputs, calculations, and assumptions are clearly labeled. This will make the model easier to understand and use.

Creating Tables and Inputting Data

Creating tables and inputting data is an essential step in setting up a financial model. Identifying the variables that will be used in the model and inputting all of the data is essential for accuracy. Using an Excel table will help you organize the data and keep track of changes, making the model easier to read and update. When entering data, it’s important to include enough data points to accurately inform your model and use a consistent unit for each variable.

Constructing Basic Formulas and Functions

Once the data has been inputted, it’s time to start constructing the formulas and functions that will make up the model. Microsoft Excel has a wide range of formulas and functions that can be used to create a financial model. It’s important to understand which formulas and functions are needed for the particular model and how to use them correctly. Test each formula and function to make sure they’re working correctly before moving on.

Data Visualization

Data visualization is an important skill for financial modelers to have. When information is presented in visual form, it can be easier to comprehend, identify patterns, and draw meaningful conclusions. Excel allows financial modellers to create charts, tables, and graphs to present models, assumptions, and results.

Charting data

Data can be presented in charts in a variety of ways to helpfinancial modellers quickly understand the information. Excel offers a library of chart types from scatter plots to 3Dpie charts. By experimenting with different chart types, financial modellers can quickly identify which best conveys the data in a user-friendly manner. Furthermore, customizing colors, labels, and other features can be used to make the chart more striking and easier to understand.

Combining charts and tables

Charts and tables can also be used together to create an effective visualization. When used together, tables can provide detailed information while charts can transport major trends at a glance. The combination of tables and charts can make data easier to grasp and thus easier to make decisions based on the data.

Conditional formatting

Excel also offers conditional formatting functionality, which allows financial modellers to highlight specific data values or ranges of values. This can be used to make trends more apparent or to call out any dramatic differences in the data. With simple color coding, financial modellers can identify outliers or ranges of interest much more quickly. Furthermore, conditional formatting can also be used to bring outliers to the surface for further exploration.


As the amount of data we need to handle becomes larger and larger, automating certain processes with Excel formulas, macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) can save significant amounts of time, effort and errors that would otherwise be required to manually perform tasks. When properly deployed, automation can make managing financial models easier, more efficient and much more reliable. Below, we will discuss three of the most common approaches for leveraging automation.

Leveraging Named Ranges

Named ranges are one of the most powerful features in Excel and allow you to easily reference complex or large ranges of data with a single name. This makes it significantly easier to manipulate the data within the model. Furthermore, named ranges can also be used to ensure formulae are referencing the correct range of data, simplify formula input and help to ensure consistency when copying and pasting formulae across a worksheet or workbook.

Applying Macros and VBA

Macros and VBA are different languages that enable you to automate certain processes within Excel. They allow you to record keystrokes, automate sequences of calculations and generally speed up processes. Most commonly, they can be used to:

  • Filter data quickly
  • Copy and paste information between sheets
  • Calculate complex formulae over many cells
  • Check and compare data between sheets
  • Create visual representations of data with graphs


Debugging is the process of locating, identifying and correcting errors in a workbook that are preventing it from functioning as expected. Debugging is an important skill when working with Excel and it is essential to ensure that all models are thoroughly tested and adjusted where needed, before they are deployed. When working with macros and VBA, the debugging process must be followed with even greater attention to detail, as the code becomes a significant part of the model.

Best Practice Methods

Financial modeling in Excel is a highly sought-after skill that can help increase your value to employers and clients. To become a proficient modeler and stand out from the crowd, it is important to use best practice methods when constructing models in Excel. This section focuses on the best practice methods for constructing models that feature the use of the Ribbon, user interface, and dynamic formulas.

Utilizing the Ribbon

The ribbon is an important part of the user interface and contains many necessary tools for financial modeling in Excel. The ribbon is organized into tabs, each of which provides different features and functions. For example, the Formulas tab is essential for creating dynamic formulas, while the Data tab provides features such as data validation and text-to-columns. It is important to familiarize yourself with the different tabs of the Ribbon and learn how each one can help with your financial modeling.

Leveraging the User Interface

Another best practice for financial modeling in Excel is to leverage the user interface for more efficient and accurate modeling. For example, using the Pick From Drop-down List command can save users from making data entry errors, while using the Quick Analysis button can quickly sum up numbers from a selected range. Additionally, users may also use keyboard shortcuts such as Ctrl + C and Ctrl+V to copy and paste data with ease.

Creating Dynamic Formulas

Dynamic formulas are formulas that update automatically as the inputs change, making it easier to see a model’s behavior under different circumstances. For example, you can use the SUMIF or COUNTIF functions to sum or count cells that have a certain characteristics, or you can use the OFFSET or INDIRECT functions to create automatically updating ranges. Using dynamic formulas can help take your financial modeling to the next level.

6. Security

Security is paramount when creating and using financial models since incorrect or insecure models can lead to inaccurate conclusions and misguided decisions. Excel makes it easy to incorporate best practices to ensure your models are secure. There are three important measures to consider when building secure financial models: password protection and encryption, identifying and resolving circular references, and integrating audit solutions.

a. Password Protection and Encryption

The first step to make sure your financial model is secure is to use password protection and/or encryption. You should also consider password protecting any other sensitive material you may use such as macros or modules. The main goal is to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to the financial model and sensitive data.

b. Identifying and Resolving Circular References

Circular references can cause problems in Excel, especially when creating financial models. A circular reference occurs when a formula accidentally refers to its own cell. To diagnose and resolve circular references, Excel provides an “Error Checking” feature, which can be used to quickly identify and eliminate any circular references.

c. Integrating Audit Solutions

To further prevent and identify any potential errors in financial models, it’s important to integrate audit solutions. Excel Visual Basic provides tools like the Solver function and Data Tab’s What-If Analysis to provide deeper insight into the model’s structure and performance. Additionally, a financial and accounting professional can also review the model to ensure accuracy and secureness.


Financial modeling is an important skill for any aspiring businessperson, analyst or accountant. In excel, financial modeling best practices are essential for designing and constructing models that are accurate and efficient.

In this blog, we discussed the most important financial modeling best practices that can help you build better Excel models. These include a clearly defined model structure, the use of range names, formatting data correctly, and using error-checking macros.

To get the most out of this blog post, it is important to stay organized when constructing a model in Excel. This means creating a clear layout for the model, and labeling and organizing ranges appropriately. Additionally, all formatting decisions should be made carefully, as incorrect formatting can skew results.

Finally, error-checking macros are essential in catching coding and logic errors. When used correctly, these can help make sure that a model is calculating correctly, and that all assumptions are valid.

Where to Find More Information on Financial Modeling and Excel

If you want to dive deeper into financial modeling and Excel, here are some great resources to explore and learn from:

  • Microsoft Excel’s help documentation: This can give a great overview of the different formulas and functions available in Excel and how they can be used to construct financial models.
  • MyExcelOnline Academy: This online training platform provides hundreds of video courses, simulations, and quizzes to help users become Excel experts.
  • Wall Street Prep: WSPrep offers a comprehensive financial modeling course complete with video tutorials and interactive case studies.
  • CFI’s Financial Modeling & Analysis Course: CFI’s course includes over 10 hours of Excel tutorials to help users learn more about financial modeling.

By leveraging these resources and following the financial modeling best practices discussed in this blog, you can become a more proficient Excel user and improve your financial modeling skills.

Expert-built startup financial model templates

500+ Excel financial model templates for your business plan